Beirut, the Mediterranean port metropolis whose historical past contains a number of destructions and reconstructions since antiquity, was but once more destroyed on the 4th of August, 2020 (BBC, 2020). The double explosion that originated in its seaport and rocked its capital traveled a ten km radius east of Beirut, killing greater than 200 individuals, injuring 7000, and damaging greater than 8000 buildings. Based on the Jordan Seismological Observatory, it was equal to a 4.5-magnitude earthquake on the Richter scale, and is taken into account some of the highly effective non-nuclear explosions in history (Verma, 2020). The echo of the big blast was felt as far-off as Cyprus, about 200 km from Beirut (BBC, 2020).
Native and worldwide media shops rushed to cowl the varied features of the blast and its aftermath. The humanities and tradition scene have been notably highlighted as a result of the neighbourhoods struggling the best harm, Gemmayzeh and Mar Mikhael, are well-known for his or her outdated historic buildings, and vibrant creative and cultural scene. Certainly, preliminary harm assessments issued by UNESCO and the Ministry of Tradition recorded 640 historic buildings broken, 60 of that are liable to collapse (UNESCO 2020).
Whereas there was quite a lot of consideration targeted on the destiny of personal artwork galleries and museums just like the Sursock museum, a semi-private fashionable and modern artwork museum (Sursock, no date), protection of the results of the blast on the archaeology museums in Beirut, which too have been broken, have been nearly solely absent. The purpose of this piece is thus to focus consideration on the results of the explosion on the cultural heritage of Beirut, and specifically its archaeological museums, and to think about extra broadly what the present lack of consideration on this sector reveals concerning the systemic points dealing with the archaeology of Beirut that implicate native, nationwide, and worldwide coverage alike.
Heritage in Beirut, Earlier than and After the Explosion
Lebanese cultural heritage has endured waves of looting, vandalism, negligence and destruction over the previous a number of a long time, and in all instances town’s social material, heritage, and reminiscence have suffered (Naccache, 1998; Fricke, 2005; Sandes, 2017). Sarcastically, it was not the Lebanese Warfare that triggered essentially the most destruction however moderately the 1994 “rebuilding” in its aftermath, as the entire middle of town was actually and deliberately razed with the collaboration with archaeologists and specialists below UNESCO supervision, in what Naccache (1998, p. 140) has termed a “memorycide.” For a quick second in time, Beirut was dubbed the most important city archaeological web site on the earth (Haddad, 1998). A quasi-governmental firm which was based for the event and reconstruction of Beirut identified by its French acronym SOLIDERE got here to the “rescue” to construct a brand new and unrecognizable Beirut, by which traces of the battle have been eliminated and changed by new buildings to cover its scars and make Beirut “lovely” once more (Fricke, 2005). The systemic destruction of heritage by the hands of SOLIDERE and its collaborators was monumental; it affected its inhabitants who misplaced their houses and companies, it affected its historical past as its archaeological websites and historic buildings have been erased and constructed over, and affected the shared reminiscence of the Lebanese individuals who now not share a standard identification. In the present day the stays of nearly any pre-war period are gone from the Beirut Central District (BCD), and now the historic neighborhoods of Ashrafieh, Gemmayzeh and Mar Mkhayel, which escaped the bulldozers of 1994, have been severely broken by the seaport explosion. In mild of this destruction, the significance of preserving its archaeology and historical past museums, additionally broken within the blast, is much more essential, as they play an important function in preserving and celebrating town’s heritage.
Within the crypt of the Saint George Orthodox Cathedral, situated within the metropolis middle, is the one in-situ archaeology museum of Beirut (Badre, 2016). The cathedral, which was closely destroyed through the battle, was once more severely broken within the 2020 explosion; nonetheless the state of the museum itself is unknown. Different archaeology museums within the metropolis are the Nationwide Museum of Beirut (NMB) and two college museums; The American College of Beirut Museum (AUBM) and the Prehistory Museum (PM) on the College of Saint-Joseph. With their appreciable collections of archaeological stays, their cultural occasions, and lectures, they’ve been enjoying a serious function within the museum sector.
All through the tumultuous fashionable historical past of the nation, these museums have every seen their share of misfortune. That is maybe no more true than within the case of the NMB. Inaugurated on the 27th of Might 1942, it was enriched by archaeological artifacts found on the varied excavations carried out in Lebanon in addition to by donations (Chehab, 1937; Asmar, 1997). On the 13th of April 1975, the Lebanese Warfare broke out forcing the museum to shut its doorways to the general public. Between that 12 months and 1990 the museum sq. turned a demarcation line named “the museum passage” dividing Beirut into East and West. The top of the Antiquities Service and curator of the NMB on the time, Maurice Chéhab, his spouse Olga, and museum staff members rescued and guarded the artifacts from the hazards of looting and destruction (Asmar, 1997; Speetjens, 1997). The impromptu threat administration plan and rescue operation have been successful, and by the top of the battle within the 1990 a lot of the artifacts have been discovered intact (El Dahdah, 1995; Pharès, 2003). The harm was primarily confined to the constructing itself and its warehouses, and restoration works have been subsequently carried out by the Ministry of Tradition and the Nationwide Heritage Basis (a non-profit group created in 1996 by a gaggle of Lebanese intellectuals aiming at preserving the Lebanese cultural heritage). In 1999 the museum reopened with a very renovated floor and first ground to welcome again its guests (Pharès and Farchakh, 2003).
The August explosion didn’t severely have an effect on the NMB because the harm was primarily structural, whereas the gathering and the museum workers remained protected. The AUBM additionally had some structural damages however has misplaced a showcase containing over 70 historical glass artifacts starting from the Roman to the Islamic intervals. This was communicated just a few weeks in a while the museum’s web site, which adopted by a sequence of Fb reside movies displaying the lifting of the fallen showcase and the salvage of the remaining items (American College of Beirut (AUB) on Fb Watch, 2020). The PM disclosed just a few particulars on their Fb web page (with none visuals) concerning the cleansing course of carried out by a staff of Blue Protect volunteers (Musée de Préhistoire Libanaise, 2020). Apart from the college museums, non-public museums with archaeological collections such because the Villa Audi Mosaic Museum and the Robert Mouawad Non-public Museum at the moment are completely closed, nonetheless there was no info within the information relating to their structural situation nor their collections’ following the explosion. The relative lack of knowledge communicated by the archaeology museums may be contrasted with that of the Sursock Museum, which was rapidly a spotlight of worldwide media consideration. The museum’s web page on Fb (Sursock, 2020) and Instagram (Sursock, 2020) posted footage just a few hours after the blast displaying the broken constructing and assortment, in addition to surveillance digicam footage in the intervening time of the explosion. The museum stays lively on all its social media platforms, posting visuals every day relating to the works carried out to scrub, restore, and rehabilitate.
The cultural neighborhood in Beirut was already at breaking level when the blast hit. Cultural establishments have been already strained by latest occasions, together with a well-liked rebellion, an financial collapse, and the worldwide pandemic. For the previous two years Lebanon has been dealing with its worst financial disaster in its historical past, because the Lebanese Lira plummeted to half its official worth this 12 months and the nation is teetering getting ready to monetary collapse (Hubbard, 2020). Relying primarily on non-public initiatives, the cultural sector was already affected by a serious lack of economic assets. The finances of the Ministry of Tradition represents lower than 1% of the overall authorities finances (Agenda Culturel, 2020)
This leads to a complete incapacity to pay easy month-to-month payments in addition to the lack to arrange any cultural occasions. The non-public sector is just not spared; nearly two years in the past the Sursock Museum introduced that it will scale back its opening days to avoid wasting funds and even thought of closing for good, launching a fundraising marketing campaign in an effort to stop the everlasting closure (Khoury, 2019). Including to the preexisting weak financial state of affairs, the 17th of October 2019 rebellion paralyzed the nation’s financial system for 2 weeks in a row. The motion which is demanding fundamental civil rights and a political reform, continues to be ongoing after 11 months (Sullivan, 2019). It’s noteworthy to say that the protesters have been displaying a deep appreciation of their heritage. Staying on the streets in Beirut and tenting within the public squares, individuals have been selling the preservation of the archaeological websites scattered in and round these squares reclaiming the general public area as theirs. Within the early days of the rebellion, the cultural scene in Lebanon usually, and in Beirut specifically closed down its museums, galleries, and artwork areas in solidarity with the tens of millions of protestors. At the same time as a few of them reopened, the state of affairs remained unstable as every day anti-government demonstrations took to the streets of Beirut inflicting a whole paralysis within the nation (Dafoe, 2019). Round March 2020 they needed to shut once more because of the Covid-19 lockdown, and on the 4th of August the whole metropolis was destroyed (Sewell, 2020).
The 4th of August explosion has thus revealed points that must be confronted. The dearth of a coherent cultural coverage for the nation that may regulate, defend, encourage, and in the end financially help cultural actions by way of actions, legal guidelines, and applications, has left cultural establishments to fend for themselves, discovering artistic methods to rise to those challenges and proceed to supply for his or her communities.
Outdated Lebanese legal guidelines on tradition want structural reform to carry readability and path to managing the cultural area, decision-making, and the distribution of obligations. Within the case of museums, the shortage of clear legal guidelines and laws have led to main issues associated to the possession and custody of personal collections. Unbiased entities such because the Excessive Fee of Museums would contribute to fill the hole left by the governmental events. This fee regulated within the Official Gazette decree (Nb. 3050 | 12/03/2016) revealed in 2016 consists of a president and 7 board members (Official Gazette, 2016). Its function is to oversee and strengthen the institution and the administration of Lebanese private and non-private museums, to protect the Lebanese cultural heritage, and to reinforce the talents of museum professionals. To this date this fee stays inoperative for unclear causes. Nonetheless, with the finances cuts the financial system is dealing with, it’s extremely possible that this fee’s actions might be placed on maintain for an unsure time period.
One other group that may play a task in shaping the museum sector in Lebanon is the Nationwide Committee of the Worldwide Council of Museums (ICOM). All of the museums that have been affected by the explosion in Beirut have been ICOM members for years. As a discussion board of specialists, ICOM makes suggestions on points associated to cultural heritage, promotes capability constructing, advances data, and units skilled and moral requirements for museum actions. It additionally has a code of ethics and a algorithm and laws that outline what a museum is or what it must be. And the function of a museum as an inclusive establishment that has as a main accountability to guard and promote cultural heritage is on the high of the mission; a museum performs a serious social function and engages often with its neighborhood (International Council of Museums, 2017).
The blast on the 4th of August got here at a degree the place the Lebanese cultural sector was dealing with a sluggish loss of life. Within the aftermath, varied native and worldwide organizations rushed to supply their assist and to revive what was destroyed. This nonetheless, didn’t solely expose the harm brought on by the blast, but it surely additionally uncovered the frailty of the sector that was already struggling. Nonetheless, it may additionally open a small window of alternative to hit the reset button, permitting for a brand new begin with a special method and a special set of targets. The cultural sector now has a considerable function to play in reshaping the longer term after the explosion. In spite of everything, the lack of heritage is an act of symbolic violence on the previous and future inhabitants of Beirut, because the erasure of cultural reminiscence severs hyperlinks with the previous, which ‘are integral to forging and sustaining fashionable identities’ (Meskell, 2002, p. 564). The failure to protect Beirut’s pre-war social material and structure ought to encourage us at this time to avoid wasting what’s left, and resist calls to rebuild these areas in the way in which SOLIDERE did within the BCD. Museums in Beirut ought to embrace their social function as a spot to precise, contest, and mediate neighborhood identification and reminiscence. This can’t be reached with out the inclusion of the whole neighborhood, with which the museum ought to keep technique of communication open.
Public outreach and communications particularly in instances of disaster place the museums within the coronary heart of their communities, making them extra accessible and visual, and must be a part of a museum’s communications plan (French and Runyard, 2011, p. 242). Social media is indispensable on this course of and so much may be realized from the technique utilized by the Sursock Museum to draw speedy consideration and disseminate information; this will go a good distance within the strategy of elevating consciousness, amassing funds, and quickly rehabilitating the museum.
Cultural establishments and museums in post-colonial Lebanon (as elsewhere on the earth) have an extended historical past of elitism and exclusivity. Nonetheless, museums worldwide have been getting extra concerned with their communities and the notion of the museum for the elites has been progressively altering in direction of being extra accessible and inclusive (Moffitt, 2017), and emphasizing social involvement (Brown and Mairesse, 2018). Even the phrase ‘museum’ has been scrutinized, as they’re now seen as key gamers in social points reminiscent of surroundings and local weather change, migration and integration, digital democracy, cities and concrete improvement, meals and well being (Black, 2018; ICOM, 2019). This was particularly seen as the vast majority of museums supported the worldwide neighborhood’s well-being by diversifying their presents on-line through the COVID-19 lockdown. This doesn’t come with out its issues as museums all over the world are dealing with main challenges particularly through the disaster brought on by the pandemic; a lot of them needed to minimize their budgets for the upcoming 12 months and needed to downsize, whereas others are dealing with everlasting closure.
To try to compensate for the shortage of assets, cultural establishments usually and museums specifically can create volunteering applications and neighborhood councils. Volunteering applications may also help recruit younger fans, prepare them and use their experience throughout instances of disaster and to fill in the place it’s wanted. After the Beirut explosion and because of the absence of such applications inside museums, a gaggle of educated college students in Museum Research and Cultural Heritage Administration from the College of Balamand superior to assist essentially the most affected museums beginning with the Sursock Museum, then shifting to the AUBM (Asser, 2020). Group councils are one other means museums are involving and interesting their communities and making them an equal accomplice in its choice making and in creating and shaping its mission. Together with representatives of main companies, establishments of upper schooling, authorities, and native businesses, these applications can assist the museum in finding and releasing funds and function ambassadors for these establishments spreading consciousness by conveying their messages, particularly in instances of want.
Having plans and companions to cope with crises reminiscent of this may also help mitigate the worst outcomes. A number of native and worldwide organizations have organized coaching applications on the preservation of a threatened heritage and the way museums can finest put together for emergencies. One was organized in 2013 by a Lebanese NGO, Biladi Historical past and Nature, in collaboration with the Pink Cross and the Lebanese Military(Biladi, no date; Aql Khalil, 2013), and another coaching was collectively organized in 2015 by UNESCO Beirut Workplace in collaboration with the Lebanese Nationwide Committee of ICOM, on “Museum Emergency Preparedness” (Unesco, 2015). Having such plans in place may also help museums mobilize workers and volunteers to behave throughout catastrophes, and unfold details about the heritage below risk.
The way in which ahead can be to confide in the younger era by giving them a task within the choice making whereas additionally together with new experience and set of abilities, providing new coaching alternatives and implementing new various partnerships. This new era of museum professionals can pave the way in which in direction of a extra inclusive and socially lively museum, able to dealing with new challenges. As soon as the paths between the neighborhood and its museum are open and accessible, the museum can then reaffirm its social function, definitely by mediating the neighborhood’s identification and its reminiscence.
For museums aren’t merely repositories for objects and precious artwork items however can play a key function in serving to communities bear in mind their previous and envision their future. Holding the scars left by the explosion and to doc the occasion that has now grow to be a part of the collective reminiscence is a vital step within the therapeutic course of. Youngsters’s applications reminiscent of these provided by each the AUBM and PM may be utilized now greater than ever to advertise the significance of the preservation of cultural heritage, and provide a protected area for kids and adults alike to precise their emotions and course of the unfavourable expertise they needed to endure as a means of reconciling with the traumatic previous.
Exhibiting relics from revolutions and political actions must be a part of their everlasting installations. One thing like that is already carried out on the NMB, the place guests are invited to look at a documentary entitled ‘Revival’ that tells the story of the museum and its assortment as they have been being ‘rediscovered’ and restored after the Lebanese Warfare. Furthermore, exhibited in one of many show instances on the primary ground is a conglomerate of steel, ivory, stone, and terracotta—objects that have been in storage through the battle and all melted collectively on account of a hearth thus fusing into one object; as a substitute of tossing it away or retaining it in storage, the NMB displayed it so guests can see the harm of the battle on the collections. Museums can use objects reminiscent of this as a reminder of each the battle itself and of the vulnerability of cultural heritage.
This text targeted on how the August explosion affected the cultural heritage in Beirut by way of its museums, a sector that has been largely absent from conversations within the aftermath of the blast. This absence is largely because of the erosion of a standard Lebanese identification and shared heritage over the previous a long time, made worse by a museum neighborhood that has most popular to isolate itself intellectually and socially from the final inhabitants. Whereas these are systemic points whose roots may be traced again to nineteenth and twentieth century orientalism (Mentioned 1978), our focus right here has been on fashionable instances. Within the Nineties, by way of the work of SOLIDERE, politicians and improvement planners introduced concerning the destruction of Beirut’s heritage and archaeological websites below the guise of “rebuilding” town, all of the whereas working with native and worldwide archaeologists, and below the supervision of UNESCO (Naccache, 1998). No matter escaped this destruction was not absolutely protected by Lebanese legal guidelines, which stay outdated and incomplete.
The financial collapse that has been plaguing the nation for nearly a 12 months resulted in additional finances cuts, leaving the cultural sector stranded and with little to no assist when the most recent catastrophe struck. Now the worldwide neighborhood (UNESCO, ICOM, ALIPH, Blue Protect, and so forth.) is as soon as once more planning to help in rescuing and rebuilding Beirut. However though all efforts are important after this catastrophe, we urge warning to not repeat the errors of the previous. Moderately, it’s obligatory to place apart a colonial narrative that appears to haven’t any exit, for one that may enable for a sustainable and locally-owned administration of future tasks.
Lastly, we should always keep away from taking away the improper classes from this occasion. Threats to museums and websites can occur anyplace, as the results of all the things from fireplace (Brazil’s Museo Nacional, France’s Notre Dame) to pure disasters (Port-au Prince in Haiti, Japan’s historic and archaeological websites), to social uprisings (Egypt’s Tahrir Sq.) and even terrorism (the World Commerce Heart in New York Metropolis housed a big assortment of positive artwork), and never all contingencies may be anticipated. At minimal, museums ought to do their finest to keep up updated inventories of their possessions in order that if gadgets do disappear solely to indicate up in a while the antiquities market, their return is simple below the provisions of the UNESCO 1970 Conference, of which Lebanon is a signatory. However these occasions ought to on no account function help of a colonialist (and orientalist) view that Lebanon can’t protect and handle its ‘antiquities’. Moderately the worldwide, nationwide, and native communities should proceed to work collectively to help efforts to safeguard collections and broaden the human relationships that make museums significant to the communities by which they reside.
Agenda Culturel (2020) CULTURE IN LEBANON BY 2020 State of Play. Beirut. Out there at: https://pdf4pro.com/view/culture-in-lebanon-by-2020-agenda-culturel-ed10.html.
American College of Beirut (AUB) on Fb Watch (2020). Out there at: https://www.fb.com/aub.edu.lb/movies/tomorrow-from-9-amjoin-us-live-here-on-aub-facebook-at-the-museum-for-the-liftin/711125352802063/ (Accessed: 25 September 2020).
Aql Khalil, N. (2013) «مسعفو» الثقافة يتدربون لإنقاذ التراث قي حالات الطوارئ | الموقع الرسمي للجيش اللبناني.
Asmar, C. (1997) ‘Histoire des collections du Musée Nationwide de Beyrouth (la Assortment Ford)’, ARCHAEOLOGY & HISTORY IN LEBANON, 5, pp. 2–6.
Asser, M. (2020) AUB Archaeological Museum counts price of Beirut blast, American College of Beirut. Out there at: http://www.aub.edu.lb:80/articles/Pages/archaeological-museum-beirut-blast.aspx (Accessed: 7 September 2020).
American College Museum Fb Reside: https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=711125352802063
Badre, L. (2016) ‘The Greek Orthodox Cathedral of Saint George in Beirut, Lebanon: The Archaeological Excavations and Crypt Museum’, Journal of Japanese Mediterranean Archaeology & Heritage Research, 4(1), pp. 72–97.
BBC Information. (11 August 2020) ‘Beirut explosion: What we all know to date’. Out there at : https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-53668493 (Accessed: 21 September 2020).
Biladi (no date) ‘Work Subject 2: Heritage Safety – BILADI Heritage for Dialogue’. Out there at: http://biladi.org/2019/08/07/work-field-2-heritage-protection (Accessed: 11 September 2020).
Black, G. (2018) ‘The Social Function Of Museums’, Rotterdam Evening Shift, 25 October 2018. Out there at: https://www.nightshift010.nl/the-social-role-of-museums-by-graham-black/ (Accessed: 14 September 2020).
Brown, Ok. and Mairesse, F. (2018) ‘The definition of the museum by way of its social function’, Curator: The Museum Journal, 61(4), pp. 525–539.
Chehab, M. (1937) ‘Le Musée de Beyrouth: Un trésor d’orfèverie Syro-égyptien’, Bulletin du Musée de Beyrouth, 1, pp. 1–16.
Dafoe, T. (22 October 2019). ‘Arts Organizations in Beirut Are Closing in Solidarity with the Hundreds of thousands of Lebanese Protesting the Authorities. Museums, galleries, and humanities foundations have halted enterprise indefinitely’, Information Artnet, Out there at: https://news.artnet.com/art-world/beirut-arts-organizations-closing-protests-1685554 (Accessed 21 September 2020).
El Dahdah, F. (1995) ‘On the First Postwar Exhibition’, ARCHAEOLOGY & HISTORY IN LEBANON, 1, pp. 12–13.
French, Y. and Runyard, S. (2011) Advertising and Public Relations for Museums, Galleries, Cultural and Heritage Sights. London, UNITED KINGDOM: Taylor & Francis Group. Out there at: http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cunygc/detail.action?docID=710110 (Accessed: 7 September 2020).
Fricke, A. (2005) ‘Eternally nearing the end line: heritage coverage and the issue of reminiscence in postwar Beirut’, IJCP, 12, p. 163.
Haddad, R. (1998) Too many archaeological websites in downtown Beirut to excavate all of them | Arts & Ent , Tradition | THE DAILY STAR. Out there at: https://www.dailystar.com.lb/Culture/Art/1998/Aug-25/100563-too-many-archaeological-sites-in-downtown-beirut-to-excavate-all-of-them.ashx (Accessed: 10 September 2020).
Hubbard, B. (10 Might 2020) ‘Lebanon Financial Disaster Explode Threatening A long time of Prosperity’, New York Occasions, Out there at: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/05/10/world/middleeast/lebanon-economic-crisis/. (Accessed: 21 September 2020).
ICOM (2019) ICOM declares the choice museum definition that might be topic to a vote, ICOM. Out there at: https://icom.museum/en/news/icom-announces-the-alternative-museum-definition-that-will-be-subject-to-a-vote/ (Accessed: 9 September 2020).
Worldwide Council of Museums (2017) ICOM code of ethics for museums. Paris: ICOM.
Khoury, E. (2019) Money-strapped Sursock Museum is in search of donors, L’Orient-Le Jour. Out there at: https://www.lorientlejour.com/article/1158179/cash-strapped-sursock-museum-is-looking-for-donors.html (Accessed: 9 September 2020).
Mallat D. (22 September 2020) ‘Les musées du Liban sont riches par leurs collections, mais petits par leurs moyens’, L’Orient-Le Jour. Out there at: https://www.lorientlejour.com/article/1233479/-les-musees-du-liban-sont-riches-par-leurs-collections-mais-petits-par-leurs-moyens-.html (Accessed 22 September 2020).
Meskell, L. (2002) ‘Detrimental heritage and previous mastering in archaeology’, Anthropological quarterly, 75(3), pp. 557–574.
Moffitt, Ok. (2017) How are museums altering from establishments of the elite to locations that ‘promote humanity?’, St. Louis Public Radio. Out there at: https://news.stlpublicradio.org/show/st-louis-on-the-air/2017-05-11/how-are-museums-changing-from-institutions-of-the-elite-to-places-that-promote-humanity (Accessed: 9 September 2020).
Musée de Préhistoire Libanaise (2020). Out there at: https://www.fb.com/permalink.php?story_fbid=1445873272267125&id=114126908775108 (Accessed: 25 September 2020).
Naccache, A. F. H. (1998) ‘Beirut’s memorycide’, Archaeology Beneath Hearth: nationalism, politics and heritage within the Japanese Mediterranean and Center East, pp. 140–158.
Official Gazette (2016) :: الجامعة اللبنانية – مركز المعلوماتية القانونية :: التشريعات تنظيم كيفية تأليف مجلس ادارة الهيئة العامة للمتاحف وتحديد مهامه وصلاحياته وقواعد تسيير اعماله وكيفية ممارسة سلطة الوصاية لرقابتها عليه. Out there at: http://legallaw.ul.edu.lb/LawView.aspx?opt=view&LawID=258548 (Accessed: 11 September 2020).
Pharès, J. (2003) ‘The Nationwide Museum of Lebanon in Beirut’, Museum Worldwide, 55(3–4), pp. 38–43.
Pharès, J. and Farchakh, J. (2003) ‘Le Musée nationwide du Liban à Beyrouth’, Museum worldwide, (219), pp. 38–43.
Prehistory Museum Fb Publish, 10 August 2020 (https://www.facebook.com/114126908775108/posts/1445873272267125/ )
Mentioned, Edward M. (1978). Orientalism. New York: Pantheon.
Sewell, A. (15 March 2020) ‘Coronavirus: Lebanon declares state of emergency, orders two-week lockdown’, Al Arabiya English, Out there at: https://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2020/03/15/Coronavirus-Lebanon-to-close-airport-borders-ports-some-public-institutions (Accessed: 21 September 2020).
Sulivan, H. (29 October 2019) ‘The Making of Lebanon’s October Revolution’, NewYorker. Out there at:https://www.newyorker.com/news/dispatch/the-making-of-lebanons-october-revolution (Accessed: 21 September 2020).
Sursock Museum Fb (https://www.facebook.com/sursockmuseum/)
Sursock Museum Instagram (https://www.instagram.com/sursockmuseum/?hl=en )
Unesco (2015) Coaching seminar on ‘Museum Emergency Preparedness’ in UNESCO Beirut, UNESCO. Out there at: https://en.unesco.org/information/training-seminar-museum-emergency-preparedness-unesco-beirut (Accessed: 11 September 2020).
Verma, N. (2020) The Humanitarian Price Of The Beirut Port Catastrophe, The Group for World Peace. Out there at: https://theowp.org/the-humanitarian-cost-of-the-beirut-port-disaster/ (Accessed: 9 September 2020).